Serum apelin levels in polycystic ovary syndrome and its relationship with adiposity profile in females.
Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to compare the serum Apelin level in patients with and without polycystic ovarian syndrome to assess this as a diagnostic marker for PCOS. In a case-control study 60 polycystic ovarian syndrome patients diagnosed according to Rotterdam criteria and 20 healthy controls of reproductive age group were recruited. Study Design: Case Control study. Setting: Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center in Collaboration with Aga Khan University, Karachi. Period: August 2017 and February 2019. Material & Methods: Blood samples were collected after 12 hours fasting and was used to test serum Apelin, insulin, cortisol and fasting blood glucose levels. Results: Seventy percent PCO subjects had irregular menstrual cycle and 68% suffered from hirsutism; while all PCO subjects had more than 10 antral follicle seen on ultrasound in either one or both ovaries in comparison of 15% controls (p<0.05). Higher Apelin and Testosterone levels in PCO group was reported when compared with controls (p<0.05) across all BMI categories. Apelin showed a positive correlation with number of ovarian cysts (r=0.429; p=0.000); irregular menstrual cyle (r=0.276;p=0.13); blood glucose level (r=0.270; p=0.015) and BMI (r=0.229; p=0.14). Apelin remained independently associated with the risk of PCOS (p=0.020) and elevated testosterone levels (p=0.030). Conclusion: Serum Apelin showed a strong association with irregular menstruation, hirsutism, ovarian cysts, testosterone and deranged blood glucose levels. Therefore, Apelin appears as a potential source for several risk factor in PCOS women of all BMI types.