Frequency and factors associated with severe COVID-19 patients.


  • Dilpat Kumar Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS).
  • Syed Tesheen Akhtar Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS).
  • Muhammad Hussain Haroon Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS).
  • Arjan Kumar Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS).
  • Sapna Bai Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS).
  • Amber Hanif Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS).



Coronavirus, COVID-19, Infection, Risk Factors, Severe Disease


Objective: To determine the frequency and factors leading to the development of severe COVID-19 in patients presenting at civil hospital, Karachi. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Medicine, Dr. Ruth K.M Pfau Civil Hospital, Karachi. Period: July 16, 2021 to January 15, 2022. Methods: Patients of age 20 to 80 years of either gender and presented with fever (>38°C) for more than three days and diagnosed COVD-19 on PCR were included. Severity and factors of the disease were assessed and noted by researcher on pre-designed proforma. Results: The mean age was 48.5±11.07 years and most of the patients were males (56.7%) and urban residents (67%). Out of 97 COVID-19 patients, 12 had severe COVID-19 disease (12.4%), while 85 patients had mild to moderate COVID-19 disease (87.6%). In distribution of factors leading for development of severe covid-19, increasing age was noted in 8 (66.7%) patients, chronic kidney disease in 4 (33.3%), diabetes mellitus type II 3(25.0%), hypertension 6(50.0%), smoking 3 (25.0%), heart failure 2 (16.7%) while anemia was noted in 1 (8.3%) patient. Of 12 severe COVID-19 patients, 8 patients had positive family history of COVID-19. There was statistically significant association between COVID-19 severity and family history of COVID-19 (p=0.001). Conclusion: Severe covid-19 is common in patients presenting with fever while increasing age was noted as most common factor leading to development of severe covid-19 followed by hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

Author Biographies

Dilpat Kumar, Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS).

MBBS Post graduate Trainee Medicine, 

Syed Tesheen Akhtar, Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS).

MBBS, FCPS, Associate Professor Medicine, 

Muhammad Hussain Haroon, Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS).

MBBS, FCPS, Associate Professor Medicine, 

Arjan Kumar, Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS).

MBBS, FCPS, Assistant Professor Medicine, 

Sapna Bai, Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS).

MBBS Post graduate Trainee Medicine, 

Amber Hanif, Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS).

MBBS, Post graduate Trainee Medicine,