HbA1c as an early diagnostic marker in gestational diabetes mellitus.


  • Shabana Abbas Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi.
  • Mehnaz Khattak Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi.
  • Sanober Hameed AJK Medical College, Muzaffarabad.
  • Fatima-tu-Zahra Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi.
  • Sami Saeed Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi.
  • Rabiya Shabir Kutiyana Memon Hospital, Karachi.






Objective: To assess the effectiveness of HbA1c as an indicator of Gestational Diabetes mellitus(GDM). Study Design: Prospective Cases Control study. Setting: Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi. Period: March 2022 to Oct 2022. Methods: All pregnant females older than 18 years of age having pregnancy confirmed by gynecologist in 1st trimester were included. A 5ml blood sample was obtained from each case to evelaute the HbA1c level. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed on both groups at conception to 12 weeks (1st trimester) as well as at 12 to 24 weeks of gestation (2nd trimester) to evaluate correlation between OGTT and HbA1c test. All the females suffering from GDM were taken in cases group and comparatively in equal number non GDM pregnant women were taken in control group. All the relevant information was collected via study proforma and SPSS version 26 was used for analysis. Results: The number of females suffering from GDM was 45 in number and we took 45 pregnant females as control group. Average level of HbA1c in women with GDM (test group) was higher than in women with Non-GDM (control group). Patients having age groups 35-39 showing greater prevalence of gestational diabetes with 73.2% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity at a cut-off value of 5.6% (31 mmol/mol) for GDM diagnosis. Conclusion: The findings reveal significantly elevated HbA1c levels during both the first and second trimesters in individuals diagnosed with GDM, with a test specificity of 95%. This underscores its ability to accurately pinpoint individuals who truly have GDM. However, HbA1c is observed as a valuable diagnostic tool for the early detection of GDM.

Author Biographies

Shabana Abbas, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, M.Phil, PG Trainee Chemical Pathology, 

Mehnaz Khattak, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, M.Phil, Assistant Professor Chemical Pathology, 

Sanober Hameed, AJK Medical College, Muzaffarabad.

MBBS, M.Phil, Assistant Professor Chemical Pathology, 

Fatima-tu-Zahra, Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, M.Phil, FCPS, Assistant Professor Chemical Pathology, 

Sami Saeed, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, M.Phil, Ph.D, Professor Pathology, HOD, 

Rabiya Shabir, Kutiyana Memon Hospital, Karachi.

MBBS, FCPS, Registrar Obs & Gynae,