Echocardiographic findings in patients with tetralogy of fallot prior to total corrective surgery admitted at a tertiary care hospital.
Keywords:Atrial Septal Defect, Echocardiography, Tetralogy of Fallot
Objective: To find out echocardiographic findings in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) prior to total corrective surgery admitted at a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Pediatric Cardiology, National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Karachi. Period: January 2021 to December 2021. Material & Methods: A total of 197 echocardiography confirmed TOF cases of both genders and age up to any years were included. Physical examination, chest radiography and electrocardiogram were done in each patient prior to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) using Toshiba Aplio i600 using 5 Hz and 6 Hz transducers. Standard protocols were followed in all TTE procedures. Results: In a total of 197 patients with TOF, there were 121 (61.4%) male. Mean age was 8.36±10.12 years. Hypoplastic pulmonary arteries was the most frequent pulmonary artery abnormality observed in 30 (15.2%) cases. Thickened and domed pulmonic valve was the most common pulmonary valvular anomaly noted in 89 (45.2%). Associated “atrial septal defect (ASD)” was observed in 47 (23.9%) cases while “patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)” was seen in 83 (42.1%) patients. History of past “Blalock and Taussig (BT) Shunt” performed was found in 20 (10.2%) cases, out of which, 15 were functioning. Conclusion: Echocardiography is an inexpensive and safe approach to cardiac evaluation among patients of tetralogy of fallot. Hypoplastic pulmonary arteries was the most frequent pulmonary artery abnormality observed in tetralogy of Fallot patients. PDA was the most frequent associated abnormality followed by associated ASD.
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